ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻻﻳﺶ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ

ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻻﻳﺶ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ
رشته تحصیلی : کامپیوتر و IT

فرمت فایل : docx

تعداد صفحات : 143

حجم فایل (به کیلوبایت) : 860

فرمت دانلود : رار/ زیپ

مبلغ : 15000 تومان

خرید و دانلود

ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻻﻳﺶ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ

دانلود ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﺭﺷﺪ ﺭﺷﺘﻪ ﻧﺮﻡﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ (M.Sc)

در 143 صفحه ورد قابل ویرایش با فرمت doc

 

ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ:    

ﭼﻜﻴﺪﻩ ................................................................................................    ................. ١

ﻓﺼﻞ ۱ ‐ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ......................................................................................................           ٤

۱‐۱‐ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ................................................................................................  ٤

۱‐۲‐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣﻞ....................................................................................   ٦

۱‐۳‐ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ............................................................................................    ٨

۱‐۴‐ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ........................................................................................   ١٠

ﻓﺼﻞ ۲ ‐ ﺍﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ...........................................................................................            ١١

۲‐۱‐ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ(................................................................................... (Enterprise  ١١

۲‐۲‐ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ(.......................................................... (Enterprise Knowledge ١٣

۲‐۳‐ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ(................................................ (Knowledge Management-KM            ١٤

۲‐۴‐ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ، ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ، ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ...................................................................................   ١٥

۲‐۵‐ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ................................................................................................    ١٥

۲‐۵‐۱ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺿﻤﻨﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺻﺮﻳﺢ......................................................................       ١٦

۲‐۵‐۲ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺧﺒﺮﻱ، ﺭﻭﻳﻪﺍﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻲ.................................................................       ١٦

۲‐۵‐۳ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻲ......................................................................        ١٧

۲‐۶‐ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ(.................................................(Organisational Memory-OM            ١٨

۲‐۷‐ ﻣﺪﻝﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ .............................................................................   ٢١

۲‐۸‐ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ(..............................................................................(Ontology  ٢٥

۲‐۹‐ ﻣﺪﻝﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ..........................................................   ٢٨

۲‐۰۱‐ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ.......................................................................  ٣٢

۲‐۱۱‐ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ............................................................................. (Architecture) ٣٥

۲‐۲۱‐ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ(................................................... (Enterprise Architecture            ٣٥

۲‐۳۱‐ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ.......................................................................    ٣٧

۲‐۴۱‐ ﻣﺪﻝﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ(.......................................................(Enterprise Modeling ٣٩

۲‐۵۱‐ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ ..................................................................(Business Process) ٤٠

۲‐۶۱‐ ﻣﺪﻝﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ ...................................... (Business Process Modeling) ٤١

۲‐۷۱‐ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ .................................... (Business Process Management)           ٤٢

۲‐۸۱‐ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ .......................................................................................... (Task)  ٤٢

۲‐۹۱............................................................................................. TopicMap‐   ٤٣

۲‐۰۲‐ ﺟﻤﻊﺑﻨﺪﻱ ...............................................................................................    ٤٤

ﻓﺼﻞ ۳ ‐ ﻣﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺑﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ.................................           ٤٦

۳‐۱‐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ ﭼﻨﺪ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ....................   ٤٨

۳‐۱‐۱ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ................................................................................ KnowMore    ٤٨

٣‐١‐٢ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ .................................................................................... FRODO       ٥٢

٣‐١‐٣ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ .................................................................................... DÉCOR       ٥٤

۳‐۲ ﺟﻤﻊﺑﻨﺪﻱ...................................................................................................    ٥٦

ﻓﺼﻞ ۴ ‐ ﺑﺎﺯﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ..............................................           ٥٨

۴‐۱‐ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ............................................................................................    ٥٨

۴‐۲‐ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲﻫﺎﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ...........................................................................   ٦٠

۴‐۳‐ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﻳﻚ ﺭﻭﺵ ﭘﻴﺶﮔﻴﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻒ ......................................................      ٦٤

٤‐٣‐١ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ.......................................................................        ٦٥

٤‐٣‐٢ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ..........................................................................       ٦٦

٤‐٣‐٣ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ.....................................................................        ٦٦

٤‐٣‐٤ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ..............................................................        ٦٧

٤‐٣‐٥ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ .........................................................................       ٦٨

۴‐۳‐۶ ﺷﻜﺴﺘﻦ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﺣﺮﻓﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ ............................................................        ٧١

۴‐۳‐۷ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎ/ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻒ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻫﺮ ﺯﻳﺮﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ.....................................        ٧٢

۴‐۳‐۸ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻫﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ ﻭ ﻭﺯﻥﺩﻫﻲ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ....................       ٧٣

۴‐۳‐۹ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‐ ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ ﭘﺮﺳﻨﻞ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ.................................................       ٧٤

۴‐۳‐۰۱ ﺍﻣﺘﻴﺎﺯﺩﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﭘﺮﺳﻨﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻫﺮ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ.......       ٧٧

۴‐۴‐ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻫﺎ.........................................................................    ٧٧

۴‐۴‐۱ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻓﻌﺎﻻﻧﻪ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺏ.................................................................        ٧٨

۴‐۴‐۲ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺏ.................................................................       ٧٩

۴‐۵ ﺟﻤﻊﺑﻨﺪﻱ...................................................................................................    ٨٣

ﻓﺼﻞ ۵ – ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻱ...........................................................................................          ٨٦

۵‐۱‐ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﻭﻝ‐ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻴﺮﺍﺙ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﻭ ﮔﺮﺩﺷﮕﺮﻱ........................................   ٨٦

٥‐١‐١ ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺗﻲ .....................................................................      ٨٧

٥‐١‐٢ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﻭﺵ.................................................................................... …        ٨٧

٥‐١‐٣ ﺟﻤﻊﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﻭﻝ...............................................        ١٠٦

۵‐۲‐ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﺩﻭﻡ‐ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ...................................       ١٠٩

۵‐۳‐ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﺳﻮﻡ‐ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ..................................         ١١٤

۵‐۴‐ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ..............................................................................................       ١١٥

ﻓﺼﻞ ۶ ‐ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪﮔﻴﺮﻱ............................................................................................. ١٢١

۶‐۱‐ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ..........................................................................................     ١٢١

۶‐۲‐ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ......................................................................................    ١٢٤

۶‐۳‐ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺐ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ..............................................................................      ١٢٦

...........................................................................................................Abstract ١٢٧

ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ............................................................................................................... ١٢٨

ﻭﺍﮊﻩﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ – ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ...................................................................................... ١٣٣

ﻭﺍﮊﻩﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ‐ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ........................................................................................  ١٣٨

ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ.......................................................................................................... ١٤٣

 ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ:

ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ٢-١ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ...................................................... EO      ٣١

ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ٢-٢ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ...................................................TOVE      ٣١

ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ۵-۱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻧﺖ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻭ ﺍﺣﻴﺎﻱ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻲ.......................................          ٩٠

ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ۵-۲ ﺟﻤﻊﺑﻨﺪﻱ..................................................................................................         ١١٧

ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ۶-۱ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ٣ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻩﻛﺎﺭ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ........       ١٢٢

ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﺷﻜﻞﻫﺎ:

ﺷﻜﻞ ٢-١-ﻣﻮﻟﻔﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ............................................................................................      ١٢

ﺷﻜﻞ ۲-۲ ﭼﺮﺧﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ .......................................................................................       ١٤

ﺷﻜﻞ ۲-۳ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ، ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ....................................................................       ١٥

ﺷﻜﻞ ۲-۴ ﺩﺳﺘﻪﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ.......................................................................................       ١٨

ﺷﻜﻞ ۲-۵ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﭘﻮﺗﺰﻛﻲ.......................................................................... [29]      ٢٢

ﺷﻜﻞ ٢-٦ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺶ ﻭ ﺍﻧﮕﺴﻮﻥ ............................................................. [45]      ٢٤

ﺷﻜﻞ ۲-۷ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﺗﺴﻮﻥ.........................................................................[48]      ٢٥

ﺷﻜﻞ ۲-۸ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺯﻳﺮﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ....................[15]        ٣٠

ﺷﻜﻞ ۲-۹ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺯﻳﺮﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ........................ [15]       ٣٠

ﺷﻜﻞ ۲-۰۱ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ................................................................................ [36]     ٣٤

ﺷﻜﻞ ٢-١١ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ.............................          ٣٩

ﺷﻜﻞ ۲-۲۱ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ ..........................................................................................[31]      ٤١

ﺷﻜﻞ ۲-۳۱ ﻣﺪﻝ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﺪﻭﻟﻮﮊﻱ ................................................... [38] CommonKADS     ٤٣

ﺷﻜﻞ ٢-١٤ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻳﻚ .......................................................... [27] Topic map       ٤٤

ﺷﻜﻞ ۳-۱ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﺑﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ .................................................................... [26]      ٤٩

ﺷﻜﻞ ۳-۲ ﺗﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ............................................. [26]     ٥٠

ﺷﻜﻞ ۳-۳ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ................................................... [43] knowMore   ٥١

ﺷﻜﻞ ۳-۴ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺑﻼﻙﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ FRODO ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ .................... [6]        ٥٤

ﺷﻜﻞ ٣-٥ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ............................................................................... [5] DÉCOR       ٥٦

ﺷﻜﻞ ٤-١ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ....................................................................................      ٥٩

ﺷﻜﻞ ٤-٢ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲﻫﺎﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ...........................................................................       ٦١

ﺷﻜﻞ ٤-٣ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ.........................................................................      ٦٣

ﺷﻜﻞ۴-۴ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ....................................................................       ٦٦

ﺷﻜﻞ۴-۵ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ.......................................................................       ٦٦

ﺷﻜﻞ۴-۶ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ..................................................................       ٦٧

ﺷﻜﻞ٤-٧ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ...........................................................      ٦٨

ﺷﻜﻞ ٤-٨ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ، ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ .....................................................      ٦٨

ﺷﻜﻞ٤-٩ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻫﺴﺘﺎﻥﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ ......................................................................      ٧٠

ﺷﻜﻞ ٤-١٠ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ ﻭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ......................................................................       ٧١

ﺷﻜﻞ ٤-١١ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ، ﺯﻳﺮﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ ﻭ ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻒ .......................................................      ٧٣

ﺷﻜﻞ ٤-١٢ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺶﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ.....................................................................       ٧٥

ﺷﻜﻞ ٤-١٣ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻭ ﭘﺮﺳﻨﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ........................................................................      ٧٧

ﺷﻜﻞ ۴-۴۱ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺠﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ...............................................................       ٨١

ﺷﻜﻞ ۴-۵۱ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ...............................................................................     ٨٢

ﺷﻜﻞ ۵-۱ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﺖﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻴﺮﺍﺙ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﻭ ﮔﺮﺩﺷﮕﺮﻱ....................       ٨٩

ﺷﻜﻞ ۵-۲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﺖ "ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ".........................................................................................       ٩٩

ﺷﻜﻞ ۵-۳ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﺖ "ﻃﺮﺡ" ..........................................................................................       ١٠٠

ﺷﻜﻞ ۵-۴ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﺖ "ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻣﻴﺮﺍﺙ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ".......................................................................١٠٠

ﺷﻜﻞ ۵-۵ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﺖ "ﭘﺮﺳﻨﻞ" ........................................................................................١٠٥

 

ﭼﻜﻴﺪﻩ

 

ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻧﮕﺮﻳﺴﺘﻪ ﻭ

ﺳﻌﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺷﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ. ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ

ﺷﺒﻜﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻭ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻛﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﺗﺮ ﮔﺸﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻔﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ

ﺍﻋﻈﻤﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺿﻤﻨﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺏ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ، ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻭ

ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻧﺎﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ. ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢﻫﺎﻱ

 

ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ

ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ، ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﻓﻌﺎﻻﻧﻪ ﻭ ﺁﮔﺎﻫﺎﻧﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ

ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ.

ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻓﻲ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺤﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻨﺒﺔ "ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﻓﻌﺎﻻﻧﻪ

ﻭ ﺁﮔﺎﻫﺎﻧﻪ" ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺗﺎﻛﻴﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ، ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﻲ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ

ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ ﺭﺍﻫﻜﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﺍ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺎﺭﺑﺴﺘﻦ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ

ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ (ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻒ) ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻛﺮﺩ.

ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻮﺯﻩ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ، ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ

ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ

ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﻴﻢ. ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺯﻧﮕﺮﻱ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ

ﺭﻭﺷﯽ ﺭﺍ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻻﻳﺶ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﻛﺮﺩ.

ﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﻭﺵ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐﺗﺮﻳﻦ

ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ، ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ، ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ

ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ.

ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻲ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺭﻭﺵ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ

ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻳﻢ.

 

ﻓﺼﻞ ۱‐ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ

۱‐۱‐ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ

ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﭼﻪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻲ ﻭ ﭼﻪ

ﺁﻥﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺖ ﺗﻨﮕﺎﺗﻨﮓ ﺑﺎ

ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺑﺮ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻲﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﻨﺪ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ

ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﻄﺎ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ

ﺭﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻲ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.

ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ "ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ" ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ

ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ.[23] ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎ ﭼﻨﺪﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ

ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﭘﻲ ﺑﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ. ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ

ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺁﻥ، ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻚ ﺗﻚ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮﻭﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻲ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻒ ﻣﺤﻮﻟﻪﺷﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ

ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺱﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ (ﻣﻮﻓﻖ ﻳﺎ ﻧﺎﻣﻮﻓﻖ) ﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ

ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺗﺒﻌﺎﺕ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﻲﺁﻣﻮﺯﻧﺪ، ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ.  ﻫﺮ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩﺍﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ

ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ.  ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺭﺍ ﺟﻤﻊﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻭ

 

ﺩﺳﺘﻪﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ،

ﺷﺒﺎﻫﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﻩﺣﻞﻫﺎﻱ ﻗﺒﻠﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ. ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ

ﺩﺍﻧﺶ (ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ) ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ.